Affinity Diagram
The affinity diagram is one of the Seven Management and Planning Tools. It is used to organize ideas and data within project management. The affinity diagram allows large numbers of ideas stemming from brainstorming to be sorted into groups, based on their relationships, for review and analysis.

Alpha Risk
Alpha risk is maximum amount of risk involved when making a Type I Error. The probability is always greater than zero, and is usually established at 5%. The researcher makes decisions to the greatest level of risk that is acceptable for a rejection of H0.

Alternate Hypothesis (Ha)
A statement of change or difference, the hypothesis is what you are trying to prove.

ANOVA ( Analysis of Variance)
Hypothesis test used to analyze the difference in means between two or more samples.

Assemble To Order
A manufacturing environment where the final product is assembled – generally using standard components but assembled for a specific customer configuration and usually based on the receipt of a customer order.

Assignable Cause
The name of the source of variation in a process that is not due to chance and therefore can be identified and eliminated.

Incorporating human intelligence into an automated process to stop the process or enable automatic corrections before the process is continued – also known as ‘Jidoka’.

Autonomous Maintenance
Self-contained and sustained cleaning, inspection and maintenance activities co-developed, maintained and performed at the machine by the operator.